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Papers (the versions hosted here differ slightly from the official versions):

- Paul Shafer.
**Honest elementary degrees and degrees of relative provability without the cupping property**. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic (2016). pdf

- Paul Shafer.
**The reverse mathematics of the Tietze extension theorem**. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society**144**(2016). 5359--5370. pdf

- Emanuele Frittaion, Matthew Hendtlass, Alberto Marcone, Paul
Shafer, and Jeroen Van der Meeren.
**Reverse mathematics, well-quasi-orders, and Noetherian spaces**. Archive for Mathematical Logic**55**(2016). 431--459. pdf

- Laurent Bienvenu, Ludovic Patey, and Paul Shafer.
**On the logical strengths of partial solutions to mathematical problems**. to appear in Transactions of the London Mathematical Society. pdf

- Rupert Hölzl and Paul Shafer.
**Universality, optimality, and randomness deficiency**. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 166 (2015). 1049--1069. pdf

- François G. Dorais, Jeffry L. Hirst, and Paul Shafer.
**Comparing the strength of diagonally non-recursive functions in the absence of Sigma^0_2 induction**. Journal of Symbolic Logic**80**(2015). 1211--1235. pdf

- Laurent Bienvenu, Rupert Hölzl, Christopher P. Porter, and
Paul Shafer.
**Randomness and semi-measures**. to appear in Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic. pdf

- François G. Dorais, Damir D. Dzhafarov, Jeffry L. Hirst,
Joseph R. Mileti, and Paul Shafer. On uniform relationships between
combinatorial problems. Transactions of the
American Mathematical Society
**368**(2016). 1321--1359. pdf

- François G. Dorais, Jeffry Hirst, and Paul Shafer. Reverse mathematics and algebraic
field extensions. Computability
**2**(2013). 75--92. pdf

- François G. Dorais, Jeffry Hirst, and Paul Shafer. Reverse mathematics, trichotomy,
and dichotomy. Journal of Logic and Analysis 4 (2012). 1--14.
pdf

- Paul Shafer. Menger's
theorem in Pi^1_1-CA_0. Archive for Mathematical
Logic 51 (2012).
407--423. pdf

- Paul Shafer. Coding
true arithmetic in the Medvedev degrees of Pi^0_1 classes.
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 163 (2012). 321--337. pdf

- Paul Shafer. Coding
true arithmetic in the Medvedev and Muchnik degrees.
Journal of Symbolic Logic 76
(2011). 267--288. pdf

- Paul Shafer. Characterizing
the join-irreducible Medvedev degrees. Notre Dame
Journal of Formal Logic 52
(2011). 21--38. pdf

- Paul Shafer. On the
complexity of mathematical problems: Medvedev degrees and
reverse mathematics. PhD thesis. Cornell
University, 2011. pdf

Selected Talks

**Honest elementary degrees without the cupping property**. Given at CiE 2016 in Paris, France on June 28, 2016, at Proof Theory, Modal Logic, and Reflection Principles Third International Wormshop in Tbilisi, Georgia on September 8, 2016, and at the Conference on Mathematical Logic in Gyolechitsa, Bulgaria in honor of Dimiter Skordev's 80th birthday on October 8, 2016.

**A tour of the mass problems**. Given at The Foundational Impact of Recursion Theory in Storrs, CT in honor of Steve Simpson's 70th birthday on May 22, 2016.

**Reverse mathematics and the strong Tietze extension theorem.**Given at the New Challenges in Reverse Mathematics Workshop in Singapore on January 11, 2016 and at Computability Theory and Foundations of Mathematics 2016 in Tokyo, Japan on September 20, 2016.**Universality, optimality, and randomness deficiency**. Given at Varieties of Algorithmic Information in Heidelberg, Germany on June 18, 2015 and at Logic Colloquium 2015 in Helsinki, Finland on August 4, 2015.**Reverse mathematics, well-quasi-orders, and Noetherian spaces**. Given at the Sets and Computations Workshop in Singapore on April 20, 2015 and at CiE 2015 in Bucharest, Romania on July 2, 2015.**Exploring randomness, diagonally non-recursiveness, and Ramsey-type combinatorial principles in reverse mathematics**. Given at ASL North American Annual Meeting 2014 in Boulder, CO on May 21, 2014 and at Proof Theory, Modal Logic, and Reflection Principles Second International Wormshop in Mexico City, Mexico on September 30, 2014.

**Studying the role of induction axioms in reverse mathematics**. Given at the Sendai Logic School in Tokyo, Japan on February 21, 2014.**Separating the uniformly computably true from the computably true via strong Weihrauch reducibility**. Given at Computability Theory and Foundations of Mathematics 2014 in Tokyo, Japan on February 17, 2014.

**Examples of problems that cannot be solved by randomness and examples of problems that can be solved by randomness**. Given at the University of Udine Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Seminar in Udine, Italy on September 17, 2013 and at the Sendai Logic Seminar in Sendai, Japan on February 14, 2014.

**Reverse mathematics and Birkhoff’s problem 111**. Given at the Bundeswehr University Munich Seminar for Theoretical Computer Science and Mathematical Logic in Munich, Germany on August 21, 2013.**Comparing the strength of DNR(k) functions and DNR(2) functions**. Given at Logic Colloquium 2013 in Évora, Portugal on July 22, 2013.

**A low DNR(k) function that computes no DNR(2) function**. Given at the Workshop on Reverse Mathematics and Type Theory in Seoul, South Korea on March 26, 2013 and at Journées Calculabilités 2013 in Nancy, France on April 11, 2013.

- Randomness from an
algorithmic perspective. Given at the ENS Lyon
Semaine Sport-Etudes 2012-2013 in Les 7 Laux, France on January
26, 2013.

- Logics and complexity in a
calculus of problems. Given at the Ghent
University Logic and Analysis Seminar in Ghent, Belgium on
October 24, 2012.

- Presenting the effectively
closed Medvedev degrees requires 0'''. Given at
ASL North American Annual Meeting 2012 in Madison, Wisconsin on
March 31, 2012.

- The Medvedev degrees as semantics for propositional logic. Given at AMS Spring Eastern Sectional Meeting 2012 in Washington, DC on March 18, 2012.
- Complexity in the degrees of
unsolvability of mass problems. Given at ASL
Winter Meeting 2012 in Boston, Massachusetts on January 6, 2012.

- Complexity in the Medvedev and Muchnik degrees. Given at the Penn State Logic Seminar in State College, Pennsylvania on October 14, 2011.
- Describing the complexity of
the "problem B is
harder than problem A"
relation. Given at the Appalachian State
University Mathematical Sciences Colloquium in Boone, North
Carolina on October 7, 2011.

- Complexity in the Medvedev
degrees of Pi^0_1 classes. Given at Workshop on
Computability Theory 2011, part 2 in Barcelona, Spain on July
17, 2011.

- Birkhoff's theorem and reverse mathematics. Given at AMS Fall Central Sectional Meeting 2010 in Notre Dame, Indiana on November 7, 2010.
- Medvedev degrees:
characterizing the first-order theory and the
join-irreducibles. Given at the Notre Dame Logic
Seminar in Notre Dame, Indiana on November 4, 2010.

- Menger's theorem in
Pi^1_1-CA_0. Given at Logic Colloquium 2010 in
Paris, France on July 27, 2010.

- Coding second-order
arithmetic into the closed Medvedev degrees.
Given at ASL North American Annual Meeting 2010 in Washington,
DC on March 17, 2010.

- The first-order theory of the Medvedev lattice is third-order arithmetic. Given at Logic Colloquium 2009 in Sofia, Bulgaria on August 4, 2009.
- A characterization of the join-irreducible Medvedev degrees. Given at CiE 2009 in Heidelberg, Germany on July 22, 2009.
- Menger's theorem and reverse mathematics. Given at the MIT Logic Seminar in Cambridge, Massachusetts on April 2, 2008.

My research in computer science consists of work on several projects in computational biology and the Biozon database led by Golan Yona.

Papers

- Eric O. Williams, Yuanyuan Xiao, Heather M. Sickles, Paul Shafer, Golan Yona, Jean YH Yang, and David M. Lin. Novel subdomains of the mouse olfactory bulb defined by molecular heterogeneity in the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers. BMC Developmental Biology 7:48 (2007).
- Paul Shafer, David M. Lin, and Golan Yona. EST2Prot: Mapping EST sequences to proteins. BMC Genomics 7:41 (2006).
- Paul Shafer, Timothy Isganitis, and Golan Yona. Hubs of knowledge: using the functional link structure of Biozon to mine for biologically significant entities. BMC Bioinformatics 7:71 (2006).

Talks

- Paul Shafer and Timothy Isganitis. Hubs of Knowledge: using the functional link structure in Biozon to mine for biologically significant entities. Given at ISMB 2005 in Detroit, Michigan on June 28, 2005.