25TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE

28 July - 8 August 1997
Durban, South Africa

Another Cosmic Ray Observatory Guide

Cosmic Ray Observatories

ACT(in India)
Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope
25 ACT's consisting of 7 parabolic mirrors
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
[India, Pachmarhi in Madhya Pradesh]
ACTs(in HEGRA)
Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, see also HEGRA
Max-Plank-institut fur Kernphysik
[Spain, Canary Island, La Palma]
AIROBICC
AIr-shower Observation By Angle Integrating Cerenkov Counters,HEGRA
18W, 29N, 2200m a.s.l., 219 plastic scintillator detectors
[Spain, Canary Island, La Palma]
AGASA
Akeno Giant Air Shower Array, See also
100 km^2, 900 m a.s.l., 930 g/cm^2
[Japan, Yamanashi, Akeno]
Akeno
Air Shower Array, See also AGASA
35.78N, 138.5E, 920 m a.s.l., 930 g/cm^2
15 km^2, from 1979
[Japan, Yamanashi, Akeno]
AMANDA
The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array at SPASE, See also here.
South Pole, 90S, 3,300 m a.s.l., 695g/cm^2
[Antarctica(USA),South Pole]
ASCA
X ray sattelite
[Japan:ISAS,USA:NASA ]
ASGAT
for AStronomie GAmma a Themis,
atmospheric Cherenkov telescope
[France, Themis (southern France)]
Pierre Auger Project
for Observation of Highest Cosmic Ray above 10^20 eV
[USA,University of Chicago and others]
BASJE
Borivian Air Shower Joint Experiment
5200m a.s.l., 550 g/cm^2, from 1960
[Bolivia, the Andes, Mt.Chacaltaya]
BATSE
Burst And Transient Source Experiment
on CGRO
[USA,NASA]
Baksan
Air Shower Array
43.42N, 42.67E, 1700 m a.s.l., 833 g/cm^2
Peak Energy 300 TeV, 1 Hz
[USSR]
Beijing EAS array
40o25'N, 116o41'E, 1030 g/cm^2
9 FT detectors and 44 density detectors (all 0.25 m^2) and 20 m^2 muon detector
[P.R.C., Beijing]
BESS
Ballon-borne Experiment with a superconducting Solenoid Spectrometer
[Japan,University of tokyo]
BETS
Balloon-borne Electron Telescope with Scintillation fibers
for Primary Cosmic Ray Electron Observation
[Japan, Kanagawa University Aoyamagakuinn University and ISAS etc.]
BIGRAT
BIcentennial Gamma RAy Telescope, See also
137E,31S, Sea Level
3 reflectors of diameter 4 m, 37 pixel camera
University of Adelaide, operation since November,1988
[Australia, Woomera]
Black Birch
173.8E,41.7S, 1640m a.s.l.,850g/cm^2
See also JANZOS
[New Zealand, Black Birch]
Buckland Park
Air Shower Array by University of Adelaide,operated since the early 1970s
35S, 140E, 1030 g/cm^2
Peak Energy 300 TeV, 0.5 Hz
40 scintillation particle detectors
[Australia, Buckland Park]
CANGAROO
Collaboration of Australia and Nippon fora GAmma-Ray Observatory in the Outback, See also BIGRAT
3.8 m paraboric Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope
composite 7 segment mirrors, f=1.0, Al front Coating, Spot size on axis 0.016 degree
137E,31S, 0.0 km a.s.l.
Theshold Energy 0.2 TeV
operation since February,1992
[Australia, 15 km from Woomera, a small town 500 km north of Adelaide]
CAO
Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope
34E, 45N, 0.6 km a.s.l.
Theshold Energy 1.0 TeV
[Ukraine,Crimea]
CASA-MIA
Chicago Air Shower Array - MIchigan Air shower array
112.8W,40.2N, 1500m a.s.l., 870 gcm^-2
PHYSICS TODAY,pp.54,April 1991
Peak Energy 100 TeV, 24 Hz
[USA, Utah, Dugway]
CAT
Cherenkov Array at THEMIS
4.8 m spherical Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope
teselated 90 segment mirrors(each diameter 50 cm, total 17 m^2)
f=1.25, Al front anodized Coating,Spot size on axis 0.02 degree(estimated)
534 PMTs, field of view 4.8 degree
1W, 4 3N 2.2 km a.s.l., from 1996
Theshold Energy 0.2 TeV
[France, Themis (southern France)]
CGRO
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
Instruments are BATSE , COMPTEL , EGRET , OSSE
[USA,GSFC,NASA]
Mt.Chacaltaya
Emulsion Chamber, Air Shower Array, BASJE, SYS, See also Here(Japanese).
68.2W,16.35S
From 1962, 5200m a.s.l., 550 g/cm^2
[Bolivia, Mt.Chacaltaya]`
CLUE
1.8 m paraboric Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope
single mirrors, f=1.0, Al front Coating, Spot size on axis 0.1 degree
18W, 29N, 2.2 km a.s.l.
Theshold Energy 0.5 TeV
[Spain, La Palma (Pisa)]
COMPTEL
imaging COMPton TELescope on ,CGRO
[USA]
COS-B
In 1975 launching, to 1981
Gamma Ray observation
[Europe]
CRT
Cosmic Ray Tracking detector
Max-Plank-institut fur Kernphysik
[Germany]
CYGNUS
Air Shower array
106.4W,35.9N, 2100m a.s.l., 800 g/cm^2
Peak Energy 50 TeV, 6 Hz
[USA, New Mexico, Los Alamos]
Darjeeling
Air Shower Array
[India, North Bengal University]
Durham
Air Shower Array, from 1976
[UK, University of Durham]
DUMAND
Deep Undersea Muon And Neutrino Detection
[USA, Hawai]
EAS-TOP
Extensive Air Shower Array and Muon Detector
42.35N, 13.57E, 2000m a.s.l., 802 g/cm^2
Campo Imperatore, Gran Sasso Laboratory
Peak Energy 300 TeV, 1.5 Hz
[Italy, Gran sasso]
EGRET
Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope
one of the Instruments of CGRO
[USA, NASA]
Fly's Eye
Air Fluorescence Light Detector
University of Utah
112.8W, 40.2N, 1500m a.s.l., 870g/cm^2
Similar site HiRes
[USA, Utha, Dugway]
Fort Sumner
Balloon base
[USA, New Mexico]
Mt.Fuji
Emulsion Chamber
From 1969, 3750 m a.s.l. (650 g/cm^2)
[Japan, Mt.Fuji]
GALLEX
GALLium EXperiment at Gran Sasso
See also here(Experiment).
See also here (Laboratory). Gran Sasso Laboratory, MaX-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik
[Italy, Gran Sasso]
GASP
0.8 m paraboric Atmospheric cherenkov telescope
10 elements in parallel, f=1.06, Al front anodized coating
South Pole, 90S, 2.5km a.s.l., 695g/cm^2
[Antarctica(USA), South Pole]
Glencullen
Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope
Searchlight mirrors used,1960's
[Ireland, Glencullen]
Gran Sasso
underground observatory
See also EAS-TOP, LVD, MACRO
[Italy]
GREX
array of scitillation detectors at Haverah Park
Peak Energy 200 TeV, 0.2 Hz
[UK,farmland on the North Yorkshire Moors]
GSFC
Goddard Space Flight Center in NASA
CGRO
[USA, NASA]
Mt.Haleakala
Cherenkov Telescope, 26 parabolic mirrors
University of Hawaii-Purdue-University of Wisconsin collaboration
PHYSICS TODAY,pp.17,November,1988
[USA, Hawaii, Mt.Haleakala]
Haverah Park
British Universities' EAS Project at Haverah Park
Air Shower Array by Water Cherenkov Detector
53.96N, 1.63W, 220 m a.s.l., 1020 g/cm^2
12 km^2, from 1967
Lead University, Durham, Imperial College, London, Nottingham
[UK,farmland on the North Yorkshire Moors]
HEGRA
High Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy experiment, see also
3 m spherical Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope
teselated 18 elements mirrors (each diameter 60 cm, total 5 m^2)
f=1.6, Al front quarts Coating, Spot size on axis 0.07 degree
109 PMTs, field of view 3.25 degree
17.89W, 28.75N, 2200m a.s.l., 780 g/cm^2
Cerenkov telescope Theshold Energy 0.5 TeV
Scintillation counters Peak Energy 50 TeV, 12 Hz
[Spain, Canary Islands, La Palma]
HiRes
The High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector
University of Utah
an atmospheric fluorescence detector
112.8W, 40.2N, 1500m a.s.l., 870g/cm^2
Similar site Fly's Eye
[USA, Utha, Dugway]
Homestake
Air Shower array
Muon Detector in underground 4200 m w.e.
University of Pennsylvania
[USA, South Dakota, Homestake]
IHEP
Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope
Theshold Energy 1.0 TeV
117E, 40N, 1.0 km a.s.l.
[P.R.China,Beijing]
IMB
Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven detector
underground neutrino detector in salt mine on the shore of Lake Erie
8,000 ton Water tank
[USA]
ICRR
Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo
[Midori-tyo 3-2-1, Tanashi, Tokyo, JAPAN]
JACEE
Japanese American Collaborative Emulsion Experiment
Balloon Experiment of Measurement of Primary Cosmic Ray, See also here(Japanese)
[USA, Japan and Poland]
JANZOS
Japan Australia New Zealand Observation of Supernova 1987A, See also Black Birch
3 Atmospheric Cherenkov mirrors (Theshold Energy 1.0 TeV)
76 Scintillation couunters (Theshold Energy 100 TeV)
173.47E, 41.45S, 1,635m a.s.l., 850g/cm^2
Peak Energy 100 TeV, 2 Hz
[New Zealand, Black Birch Mountain in the Island]
KAMIOKANDE
KAMIOKA Nucleon Decay Experiment and/or KAMIOKA Neutrino DEtector
Water Cerenkov detector, See also SuperKAMIOKANDE
[Japan, Gifu, Kamioka-cho, Kamioka mine]
Mt.Kanbara
Emulsion Chamber
5500 m a.s.l., From 1976
[P.R.China]
KASCADE
KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array Detector
252 detector stations with more than 1500 scintillation detectors(0.8 m^2)
49N, 8.5E, 110 m a.s.l. (laboratory site of the Reseach Center Karlsruhe)
[Germany, Karlsruhe]
Kiel
Air Shower Array
Sea Level
[West Germany,University Kiel]
Kobe
Air Shower Array
Sea Level, 1020 g/cm^2
[Japan, Hyougo, Kobe University]
Kolar Gold Fiield (KGF)
muon, nutrino
12.95N, 78.3E, 920 g/cm^2
Scintillation counter at 920 m a.s.l. andmuon detector underground 1000 m
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
Peak Energy 300 TeV, 1 Hz
[India, Ootacamund, Kolar]
Lebedev
Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope
75E, 42N, 3.3 km a.s.l.
Theshold Energy 1.0 TeV
[C.I.S.,Tien Shan]
Leeds
Air Shower Array
Sea Level, 1020 g/cm^2
[UK,University of Leeds]
Lodz
Extensive Air Shower array
200m a.s.l.
[Poland]
LVD
Large Volume Detector
Gran Sasso Laboratory
[Italy]
MACRO
Muon And Cosmic Ray Observatory
See also Gran Sasso Laboratory
[Italy, Gran Sasso]
MAKET-ANI
ECC+ionization chamber(25 cm diameter, x:20 * y:130 (40 m * 6 m))
plastic scintillator (1 m^2:76, 0.09 m^2:24)
3250 m a.s.l. (700 g/cm^2)
[Armenia, Mt.Aragats]
MaX-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik
See also CRT, HEGRA,ACT
[Germany, Heidelberg]
MILAGRO
Water Cherenkov Detector
under construction, 106.4W, 35.9N, 2100m a.s.l., 800 g/cm^2
[USA,New Mexico Fenton Hill (near Los Alamos)]
Moscow
Air Shower Array
Sea Level,from 1969
[USSR, Moscow State University]
Narrabri
ATMOSPHERIC Cherenkov Telescope
(Mk III) 7 m teselated 43 elements paraboric mirrors, f=0.6, Al front anodized Coating, Spot size on axis 0.2 degree
(Mk VI) 4 m composite 24 sectors paraboric mirrors, f=1.0, Al front anodized Coating, Spot size on axis 0.125 degree
150E,30S, 250m a.s.l., 1020 g/cm^2, University of Durham
Theshold Energy 0.1 TeV
[Australia, N.S.W., Narrabri]
Mt.Norikura
Emulsion Chamber, Air Shower
137.33E, 36.6N, 2700m a.s.l., 740 g/cm^2, From 1958
[Japan, Mt.Norikura]
Ohya
42 scintillation counters (38 of 0.25m^2, 4 of 0.5 m^2)
36.58N, 139.83E
[Japan, Tochigi Pref., Utsunomiya city]
OSSE
Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on CGRO
four NaI(Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswitch detector
[USA, NASA]
OSO-III
In 1968 launching
Gamma Ray observation
[USA,MIT]
Pamir
Emulsion Chamber
4,370 m a.s.l., 594 g/cm^2, From 1974
[CITS(USSR), Tadjikistan, Pamir plateau]
Prince Albert
Balloon Base, 600m a.s.l., 53 degree N and 106 degree W, cut off rigidity 0.65 GV
[Canada,Saskatchewan]
Proton satellite 1 - 4
Energy spectrum and charge composition between 10**11 - 10**15 eV
[USSR,satellite]
Potchefstroom
Atmospheric Cherenkov detector, University of Potchefstroom
1.5 m spherical Atmospheric cherenkov telescope (MkII Gamma Ray Telescope)
teselated 3 elements mirrirs, f=1.0, Al oxide coating
27E,27S,1.4 km a.s.l.
Theshold Energy 1.0 TeV
[South Africa, Northwest Province, farm Nooitgedacht, 35 km from Potchefstroom ]
ROSAT
X ray Sattelite
[Germany]
Samarkand
Air Shower Array
750 m a.s.l.
[CITS(USSR), Uzbeg]
Sanriku
Balloon Base of ISAS
[Japan,Iwate,Sanriku tyou]
SAS-II
Small Astronomical Satellite 2
In 1972 launching
Gamma Ray observation
[USA,NASA]
SNO
Sudbury Neutorino Observatory in the deep mineshaft 200 miles
underground neutrino detector using Heavy water (a kiloton heavy water)
Canada-UK-US collaboration
[Canada,north of Toronto]
SOKOL
Energy spectrum and charge composition above 2 TeV
onboard COSMOS 1543 and COSMOS 1713
[USSR,satellite]
SPASE
South Pole Astronomical Sarvay by Extended air shower,AMANDA
South Pole, 90S, 3,300 m a.s.l., 695g/cm^2
Theshold Energy 0.5 TeV
See also SPASE2.
[Antarctica(USA),South Pole]
STACEE
Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment
Cherenkov light collection using a solar power plant
[USA,southern California]
SUGAR
Sydney University Giant Airshower Recorder
30.32S, 149.36E, 250 m a.s.l. (1020 g/cm^2)
55 km^2, from January 1968 to February 1979
University of Sydney
[Australia, New South Wales, Pillga Forest (near the Narrabri)]
SuperKAMIOKANDE
Super KAMIOKA Nucleon Decay Experiment or Super KAMIOKA Neutrino DEtector
Water Cerenkov Detector, See also KAMIOKANDE
[Japan, Gifu, Kamioka-cho, Kamioka mine]
Sydney
SUGAR,Large Air Shower Array
[Austraria, Sydney]
SYS
Chacaltaya EAS array of Saitama-Yamanashi-San Andres universities
5200m a.s.l., 550 g/cm^2, from 1977
[Boribia Mt.Chacaltaya]
TACTIC
Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope
73E, 24N,1.7 km a.s.l.
Theshold Energy 0.2 TeV
[India,Mt.Abu]
Tata
Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (ACT)
78E, 22N, 1.1 km a.s.l.
Theshold Energy 1.1 TeV
[India,Pachmari]
Telescope Array
Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope and Atmosoheric Fluorescence telescope
[Japan, Yamanashi, Akeno and USA, Utah, Dugway]
THEMISTOCLE
Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope,ASGAT
teselated 18 segment mirrors (each diameter 80 cm)
1W, 43N, 1600 m a.s.l.
Theshold Energy 3.0 TeV
[France, Themis (southern France)]
Tibet AS gamma
Air Shower array
90.53E,30.11N
4,300m a.s.l., 606 g/cm^2
Threshold Energy 10 TeV in Tibet I
Now,Tibet II has started from 1994 October.
Soon,HD array will construct.
[PRC,Tibet,Lhasa,Yangbajing]
Mt.Tien Shan
Air Shower Array, See also Lebedev
3340 m a.s.l., 690 g/cm^2
Lebedev Physical Institute
[CITS(USSR), Tien-Shan mountains 40km from Alma Ata(Kazakhstan)]
UHURU
X ray Sattelite
[USA]
Volcano Ranch
Air Shower Array
35.16N, 106.79W, 1770 m a.s.l., 820 g/cm^2, from 1959 to 1961
8 km^2
[USA]
Whipple observatory
Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope detector
111W, 31.5N, 2300 m a.s.l.
10 m spherical teselated 248 segments mirros, f=0.7, Al front anodized coating, spot size on axis 0.13 degree
11 m parabolic teselated 433 segments mirros, f=0.7, Al back coating, spot size on axis 0.2 degree
Theshold Energy 0.2 TeV, 100 GeV - 10 TeV
See also here.
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and others
[USA, Arizona, Mt.Hopkins in south-east Arizona]
Yakutsk
Extensive Air Shower Array
62degreeN, 100m a.s.l.
43 Stations with 2 Prticle Detectors of 4 m^2, and Cerenkov Detector, Neutron and muon Detector
62N, 130E, 100 m, 1020 g/cm^2, from 1972
17 km^2
[CITS(USSR),near Yakutsk]
Yunnan Station
Emulsion Chamber
3,200m a.s.l.
[P.R.C., Yunnann]
Zhengzhou station
34.44N, 113.17E, 100 m a.s.l.
4 FT detectors, 4 Density detectors
[Univ. Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou, China]