Intrinsic random fields and image deformations
Mardia, K.V., Bookstein, F.L., Kent, J.T., & Meyer, C.R.
The stochastic structure of images, especially individual medical images as they are reconstructed nowadays from arrays of medical imaging sensors, is becoming steadily better understood. Less attention has been paid to the parallel notion of estimation error for the deformations that convey relations among these images, such as localized abnormality or growth prediction. The dominant current formalism for the biostatistics of deformations deals solely with the shape of a set of landmarks parameterizing the deformation, not otherwise with its behaviour inbetween the landmarks.